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EMDR Therapy: Unblocking our mind's natural information processing system

Our memories are complex tapestries woven from the threads of our experiences. Sometimes, however, these threads become tangled, causing distressing symptoms like anxiety, phobias, or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fortunately, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy offers a unique approach to untangle and heal these memories.

Origins of EMDR

EMDR therapy was developed by Francine Shapiro in the late 1980s as a groundbreaking approach to treat individuals dealing with the aftermath of trauma. It is based on the idea that traumatic experiences are stored differently in the brain than regular memories. These traumatic memories can get "stuck," causing distressing symptoms and emotional disturbances.

EMDR therapy operates on the principle that the brain has the innate ability to heal itself when provided with the right tools and conditions. Through bilateral stimulation, typically achieved through the movement of the therapist's fingers or other visual or auditory cues, EMDR aims to reprocess traumatic memories, allowing them to integrate with regular memory networks.

Reconnecting Disparate Memory Networks

One of the core principles of EMDR therapy is the concept of re-connecting different parts of a traumatic memory stored in various areas of the brain. Traumatic memories are often fragmented and isolated, which contributes to the emotional distress experienced by individuals. EMDR seeks to bridge these memory fragments and integrate them into a more cohesive narrative.

During EMDR sessions, patients are guided by their therapist to focus on specific aspects of the traumatic memory while simultaneously engaging in bilateral stimulation. This dual attention process helps individuals process and re-consolidate the fragmented memory components, ultimately reducing the emotional charge associated with the trauma.

What can EMDR be used for?

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapeutic approach originally developed to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has since been used and researched for a wide range of conditions and issues beyond PTSD. Here are some of the areas where EMDR has been applied:

  1. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): EMDR was initially developed to treat PTSD and remains one of its primary applications. Research consistently supports its effectiveness in reducing symptoms associated with trauma.

  2. Anxiety Disorders: EMDR has been used to treat various anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Studies have shown promise in reducing anxiety symptoms.

  3. Depression: EMDR has been explored as an adjunctive treatment for depression, especially in cases where past traumas contribute to depressive symptoms. While not a primary treatment for depression, it may be beneficial in conjunction with other therapies.

  4. Phobias: EMDR can help individuals overcome specific phobias by reprocessing the traumatic memories associated with the phobia. This approach has been used for various phobias, including fear of flying, spiders, and heights.

  5. Complex Trauma: EMDR is effective for treating complex trauma, which involves multiple traumatic experiences over an extended period. It helps individuals address the layers of trauma and their associated symptoms.

  6. Grief and Loss: EMDR has been used to help individuals process and cope with grief and loss, including the loss of a loved one or a significant life change.

  7. Addiction and Substance Abuse: Some studies have explored the use of EMDR as part of addiction treatment, helping individuals address underlying traumas that may contribute to their addiction.

  8. Body Image Issues: EMDR has been adapted to address body image issues, particularly in individuals who have experienced trauma related to body image or appearance.

  9. Performance Enhancement: EMDR has been used to improve performance in athletes, artists, and professionals by addressing performance anxiety and past negative experiences that may affect performance.

  10. Chronic Pain: EMDR has been explored as an adjunctive therapy for individuals with chronic pain conditions. While not a direct treatment for pain, it may help individuals manage the emotional distress associated with chronic pain.

  11. Eating Disorders: EMDR has been used to address the underlying trauma and emotional issues associated with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia.

  12. Dissociative Disorders: EMDR can be adapted for individuals with dissociative disorders, such as dissociative identity disorder (DID), to help them process traumatic memories and improve integration.

EMDR In-Person Therapy

Traditional in-person EMDR therapy sessions involve face-to-face interactions between the therapist and the patient. The therapist guides the patient through the reprocessing of traumatic memories while providing the bilateral stimulation needed for memory reconnection.

In an in-person setting, EMDR therapists are trained to create a safe and supportive environment where patients can explore their traumatic memories without fear of judgment. This therapeutic alliance is essential for building trust and facilitating the healing process.

Adapting EMDR for Online Therapy Advancements in technology and changes in therapeutic practices have made it possible to adapt EMDR for online therapy. Virtual EMDR sessions provide a flexible and accessible alternative for individuals seeking trauma treatment. Several factors contribute to the success of EMDR in an online format:

1. Bilateral Stimulation: In online EMDR sessions, therapists utilize various tools and techniques for bilateral stimulation, such as hand-held buzzers, audio tones, or even guided visual exercises. These alternatives effectively mimic the bilateral stimulation used in traditional in-person sessions. 2. Therapeutic Relationship: Online EMDR therapists prioritize building a strong therapeutic relationship with their clients. This connection is crucial for creating a safe space where patients can explore their traumatic memories comfortably. 3. Safety and Privacy: Privacy and confidentiality are paramount in online therapy. Therapists ensure that sessions are conducted in a secure environment, and clients are educated about maintaining their privacy during virtual sessions. 4. Flexibility and Accessibility: Online EMDR therapy provides flexibility for clients who may have logistical constraints or live in remote areas. It allows individuals to access trauma treatment from the comfort of their own homes. 5. Structured Approach: Online EMDR therapists follow a structured protocol to ensure the effectiveness of each session. This includes comprehensive assessments, preparation, desensitization, installation, and body scan phases.

EMDR therapy offers a transformative approach to healing trauma by re-connecting fragmented memories stored in different areas of the brain. Its effectiveness is not limited to in-person sessions; EMDR has successfully transitioned to online therapy, providing individuals with accessible and flexible options for trauma treatment.

Whether in person or online, the core principles of EMDR remain the same – creating a safe space for individuals to reprocess traumatic memories and find healing. The adaptability of EMDR therapy ensures that those who seek to untangle the threads of their traumatic experiences can do so in a way that suits their needs and circumstances.

*Please note that while EMDR has shown promise in treating various conditions, it may not be suitable for everyone, and individual responses to therapy can vary. It's essential to consult with a qualified mental health professional to determine whether EMDR or another therapeutic approach is the best fit for your specific needs and circumstances.


  1. Shapiro, F. (2014). The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18(1), 71-77.

  2. Bisson, J., Roberts, N., Andrew, M., Cooper, R., & Lewis, C. (2013). Psychological therapies for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(12), CD003388.

  3. Cusack, K., Jonas, D. E., Forneris, C. A., Wines, C., Sonis, J., Middleton, J. C., ... & Gaynes, B. N. (2016). Psychological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 43, 128-141.

  4. Hofmann, A., & Schulz, M. (2019). Can Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) be effectively delivered remotely via telehealth?. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 13(2), 136-142.

  5. Maxfield, L., Melnyk, W. T., & Hayman, G. C. (2008). A working memory explanation for the effects of eye movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4), 247-261.


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